The discipline is a science since it is a self-conscience study and an independent field, with knowledge from observation an experience. The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest. This introduces the progressive nature of PA, under the influence of the political system that called for reforms and professionalism.
The map reveals that the definition of public administration is under the influence of government activity and historical context that began in the late 17th century with the rise of the modern state.
Bureaucratic accountability and commitment towards public interest Freedom of information and expression including openness and transparency How to face this Challenge Participation of the Civil Society in public decision making Effective Corporate regulatory frameworks in Enterprises Anti-corruption laws for establishing integrity and morality Public financial Management for balancing government expenditure and welfare fund Legal Public administration mind map judicial reforms needed for speedy system and trial Initiatives Right to Information Act, bring in transparency and eradicate of corruption by civil society direct involvement.
The concept of leadership and its connection to other concepts like decision-making, unity of command, authority, and hierarchy, are of interest to this research. Most people must be coerced or threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort.
From these bases, public administration was an art that was under the influence of ideologies like that of Confucius Naidu, Every application of law is an act of administration" Pruthi, ; Van Mart, Practices from Seminal Works and Modern Approaches The study of public administration began with Wilson Woodrow as evident in its seminal essay "The Study of Administration" found in the political science quarterly of Naidu, ; Van Mart, The discipline is a science since its study is through various scientific methods as seen with the modern theories of comparative and behavioral methods Osborne, The average human being has an inherent dislike of work.
The most remarkable era in the evolution of public administration is the industrial age that gave formal organization, pyramidal hierarchies, public service, and the system of external and internal control Naidu, Political accountability, including the acceptability of political system by the people and regular elections.
Leadership -- planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting. Public administration is dynamic as it is an art, a science and a philosophy.
Motivation-Hygiene Theory Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, Barbara Snyderman 1 achievement, 2 recognition, 3 work itself, 4 responsibility, and 5 advancement. Self-actualization Abraham Maslow 1 physiological needs food, water, shelter, etc.
An analysis of literature provides evidence that public administration is historically the collective efforts of the implementation of public policies given by the law and legislation Osborne, The discipline of public administration has its roots in the autocratic monarchies of China, Egypt, India, and Europe.
People prefer to be directed and wish to avoid responsibility.
Bureaucratic Agency Focuses on own needs Defined by the resources it controls Controls costs Sticks to routine Fights for turf Follows standard procedures Separates thinking from doing Customer-Driven Agency Focuses on customer needs Defined by results it achieves for customers Creates value Responds to changing customer demands Competes for business Builds choice into operating systems Empowers all front-line employees Postmodernism Technocracy 1.
PA concepts decision-making, communication, public relations, supervision, coordination, unity of command, authority, leadership, Theoretical Perspectives: It is dynamic since it has different approaches, which have their foundations on the historical context of public administration.
The discipline is also wide as it finds application in different areas both in the private and public organizations, as its nature varies according to the setting of the organization Naidu, A person will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which he is committed.
It is for this reason, this research will discuss the concept of public, administrative leadership in terms of its practice, concern, and ethical implications. The study identifies that public administration is evolving from the historical approaches under the current theories.
Under this concern, the public administrator is a leader that is innovative, proactive, and a risk taker that directs individuals and organizations to adapt to changes. The discipline is a science since it has a set of principles applicable to different administrative environments.
Therefore, public, administrative leadership is an act of doing deeds like the identification of the most successful initiatives to address pertinent issues, of that which does not and does work for each situation, and inspiring in decision-making.
Simon Herbert finds that it, "is a meant, in common usage, the activities of the executive branches of the national, states, and local government" Naidu, Lastly, effective public administration is the learning experience of the shifts in social reality and the changing environmental conditions facing institution.
These approaches show the historical revolution of the modern public administration under the influence of political, law, economics, and social ideologies of each period. The mind map identified that public administration is a varied and multi-disciplinary area that is continually evolving.
On the other hand, the definition in use, in this research is from the modern approaches.XMind is the most professional and popular mind mapping tool. Millions of people use XMind to clarify thinking, manage complex information, run brainstorming and get work organized.
Tayrien September 6, Download. Map Outline PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC ENTITIES. National Academy of Public Administration;. Create a mind map of public admnistration theories and theorists. Identify a series of theorists and theories that describe and support the development of public administration and the politics-administration dichotomy as we.
Public Administration Mind Map Draft Tara E.
Green Capella University MPA/Survey of Research and Practice in Public Administration Dr. Jean Hunt. Mind Map. Abstract One cannot begin to digest the dichotomy of public administration without first examining a theorist at the forefront of the field, Woodrow Wilson.
Wilson along with civil servants promoted civil service reform in This catapulted the field of public administration into scholastics. Woodrow Wilson stated that, “Our own politics.
Study Kit for Public Administration for IAS Mains Exams Online Crash Course for Public Administration Mains Examination Mind Map Important Topics: Good Governance.
World Bank Concept. Political accountability, including the acceptability of political system by the people and regular elections. Excerpt from Research Paper: Public Administration Mind Map PA concepts decision-making, communication, public relations, supervision, coordination, unity of command, authority, leadership.Download